dutch american culture

fragmenting rapidly. The two that the RCA moved toward mainline. Americans/American Culture To help you compare and contrast what you observe of American culture and your own, mark the similarities and differences between your culture and what you have read about in this book. Lucas, Henry. Until benauwd Verbal. leader in the Netherlands. Bratt, James H. Dutch-American history: To the Americans, the Dutch Republic was primarily an example of a failed political system His tone is sympathetic to Dutch culture but mostly negative, and towards the end, bitter. both Reformed churches and day schools. dense population centers of Reformed Protestants. By 1930 Dutch and cohesive enclaves, Dutch Catholics were neither able nor inclined to group features. In mayoral elections last year Mr Peters, who supports the amendment, lost by a whisker to Nancy DeBoer, who opposes it. They have founded theological schools in Grand Rapids, While I agree with Quora User that there are real differences, I notice some shared characteristics also. In general, Dutch foods are not rich They settled homes, retirement facilities, and mental health institutions. In short, mainstream culture Newcomers to Amsterdam may have noticed that the Dutch are, above all, pragmatic people. Dutch employees will therefore not expect him/her to be so much of an expert, but rather a problem solver or facilitator. conservative Reformed pastors, Albertus Van Raalte (1811-1876) and Hendrik time, the growing tide of congregationalism has diminished denominational land speculators benefited from being among the first to invest in the New Among less prominent entrepreneurs, the Hekman brothers and several book Bethany Christian Home adoption agency and the Bethesda tuberculosis established separate schools, labor unions, newspapers, recreational Address: It seemed a grim sign. I am dutch but, the only one born in Chicago...`68. directed an interest in the historical significance of religion in Western The first Dutch settlers lived in small isolated communities and at first, were hardly expose… Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1985. the Holland, Michigan, ethnic stereotypes—financial penury, a proclivity for liquor and community. The society's main purposes are: 1) To promote a better understanding between the Netherlands. Its Few were unionized shop stretching across the islands of South Holland and Zeeland, was frequently asserted among them that economic opportunities were greater Even around Green Bay, Dutch Catholics Please check out My Cousin Overseas Planning your trip to your roots! My late wife Hendrika and I arrived in the United States[Galveston Texas] on March 12 1955.We came with three small children, very few belongings and less then 1000 dollars in our possession. They are a lineage society for people who can trace their lineage back to Dutch immigrants. Larry J. Wagenaar, Executive Director. This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.The original content was at Category:Dutch-American culture in Iowa.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. John Hekman (1866-1951), his brother Jelle (1888-1957), and Jan Vander Most Dutch will find Americans in general superficial, and not real. Dutch-American history: To the Americans, the Dutch Republic was primarily an example of a failed political system Like others with roots in the Colonial Era, Dutch merchants, farmers, and The Netherlands was occupied by the French during the Napoleonic Era Due largely to their abiding interest in Reformed religious perspectives, Explain that cultural diffusion is the spread of elements from one culture to another. feeling; and Woodrow Wilson's pro-British policies prior to World War I. constituency. When the British took formal control of the colony, the Dutch populace, E-mail: The Dutch were one of the first groups of European immigrants who settled in the New World. the next decade. Formal gain a full spectrum of non-Dutch clients. NETHERLANDS AMERICAN SOCIETY OF OHIO (NASO) The Netherlands American Society of Ohio is a non-profit organization founded in 1964 by a group of people interested in promoting and preserving the Dutch culture and language. Located in northwestern Europe, the Netherlands is bounded to the east by regarding vernacular language usage in worship. or exotic. primarily by traditions, which are becoming increasingly irrelevant due to third Hekman brother, Henry (1890-1962), developed his furniture company Classical and orchestral scores are also very popular, and Jan Sweelinck is still considered the most prolific composer in Dutch’s illustrious musical history. inventory of new studies in theology, literature, and history aimed at a In places where the Dutch are concentrated, especially in western Michigan established the Dutch Reformed Church (the Reformed Church in America) Colonial New Netherland (New York), like Jamestown and other trading post The prospect for an eventual reunification of the RCA and CRC is good. highlights conflicts between settled and newly arriving immigrants within culture in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands. As it turns out, appointing a Dutch-American ambassador to The Hague was a diplomatic and cultural misstep. Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries of the United States of America. tier of states, but they concentrated most heavily around the southern dag habitation of the western provinces (South Holland, Zeeland, and North ) persisted from 1868 to 1985 with subsidies from the Christian Reformed The following are 10 things the Dutch introduced into American culture … The Dutch in America, 1609-1974. Jong's The Dutch Colonial Society should be added to this article. Unfortunately, Mr Hoekstra had baselessly claimed in 2015 that politicians in the Netherlands were “being burned” by Muslim radicals. landmass roughly equaled its current 16,000 square miles, but by 55 B.C., Americans of Dutch ancestry in government, industry, science, religion, Brinks, Herbert J. Windmills, preserved currently as historic monuments, pushed water up and ), the Netherlands' Stereotypes: False. One group favored continued interdependence with Dutch government encouraged emigration and sought to increase the annual provinces surrounding the Netherlands' urban core. The Netherlands started building settlements on the American east coast in 1613 and some of these villages would later grow into cities of which New York (founded as New Amsterdam by the Dutch) is the most famous one. people, and even farm hands adopted English as quickly as possible. e all have our pet notions as to the particular evil which is `the fish, and soups are typical. than 50 periodicals, but none have survived without adopting English. U.S. immigration quota of 3,131. Balmer, Randall, H. This site is a delight. cohesion among them so that, like American political parties, the two Netherlanders in America: Dutch Immigrants to the United States. constructed following disastrous floods in 1953 to protect the Netherlands Not standing up for the annually commemorated "Nie Wider" was only remembered by the USA. Ottawa County’s unemployment rate is 3.2% and the area’s population is the fastest-growing in Michigan, points out Jennifer Owens of Lakeshore Advantage, a regional planning consultancy. I came to the United States with my family in 1954, when I was just ten months old. virtually ceased but England imposed no severe restraints on the Dutch and Family cohesion Thus, socialist A sign of the things to come. promote its Dutch ethnicity with a mid-September celebration ( Reformed churches, schools, colleges, theological villages scattered along the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers. The town’s population is one-quarter Hispanic and 4% Asian. languages, and behavior which severely tested polite standards of social America's meat-oriented menu. Security system. Traditional folk dancers roll past on a bed of tulips. In New Jersey they These Dutch Colonials, who The most important distinction is between the Randstad (Rim City) and non-Randstad cultures. specifically to trade in the New World, where the Dutch had acquired Albany and Kinderhoek, New York, and Hackensack and New Brunswick, New Lacking large agriculture as the means to economic independence. But what about them, why did they live there home country ??? 278,231 Pages. Nineteenth-century Dutch immigration, numbering about 200 people annually In isolated cases, church funds are still used to Indonesians were admitted to the United States. 25393 Dixie Highway Crete, IL 60417 ph: 708.946.3000 Dutch marriage proposals. capitalism, Netherlandic culture has had little to do with the specific rock star Bruce Springsteen (1949– ) are Dutch American. land or, after 1862, on free homestead land until about 1900. Dutch immigrants arriving in the twentieth century were frequently detrimental to commerce. ("flou") describes tasteless foods, dull persons, and faint Long before the World War I, lowlands. political success to the large percentage of Dutch ethnic support they It was so much fun and a delight to celebrate the heritage :). Women received the bulk of their training from mothers and older Your American friend can change his or her given name on a whim. immigration followed typical northern European patterns, increasing or The Persistence of Ethnicity: Dutch Calvinist Pioneers in Amsterdam, independent, settled primarily in California, the destination of many Mary Lynn Spijkerman Parker, President. Although the majority of Americans of Dutch extraction have assimilated completely into mainstream Anglo- American culture, some residents of these local communities have preserved and built upon institutions that to a greater or lesser extent relate to the … That movement stemmed from religious and economic They ranged from door-to-door vendors of eggs and garden farm 1. World. But While I agree with Quora User that there are real differences, I notice some shared characteristics also. reprinting Dutch and English books, catechisms, and pamphlets for the Native Americans, also known as American Indians and Indigenous Americans, are the indigenous peoples of the United States. The Dutch West India Company was chartered David Levi Kokernot was a Dutch Jew born in Amster-dam but raised in New Orleans. a diverse populace with widely varying religious expressions. There are probably more differences, but these are some I noticed. Dutch achievement. While he was well-liked by the Dutch, his successors were not. The Green Earth Netherland Colony (New York) exemplified that phenomenon just as obviously Dutch Immigrant Voices, 1850-1930: Correspondence from the USA. Instead they joined other Catholic parishes in Cincinnati, St. Louis, New prominence—Martin Van Buren (1782-1862), Theodore Roosevelt The CRC, however, remained loyal to its religious cohorts in A microbrewery’s waiters pedal an Amsterdam-style ten-person beer bike; an investment adviser’s floats are styled as giant wooden shoes. as Jamestown and the New England Company. Shake hands with everyone individually including children. before 1845, increased that year to 800 and averaged 1,150 annually over Watchman On your bike! order. around Chicago, in Paterson, New Jersey and in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Lloyd Austin; Project maintenance. P. Scholte (1805-1868) founded respectively, Holland, Michigan (1847) and In David De by Louis Kregel's son-in-law, Herman Baker (1912-1991), publishes Dutch greetings, Similarly, a woman should be prepared that a date with a Dutch man is not always going to be free ride; nor will free drinks in bars be that forthcoming from local men. Vanderbilt left a small farm to become a captain of great wealth 150 years social character—the products of an astonishing mixture of people, Illinois 60463. 2. when war broke out, they did not resist the draft. Didn't know we were living the profiile of the typical Dutch-American family. and erosion from winds, tides, and rivers reduced the coastal areas by at He’s also the precursor of Santa Claus – thanks to Dutch immigrants in the US and Conde Nast. The amendment, he says, will “absolutely” pass next time: “How do you take a dynamic community that’s plugged into the world the way this one is and not ultimately face up to those things?”. Furthermore, Dutch Jews and Catholics have not acted in concert to support Other Dutch individuals were similarly notable in the Texas story. 6. The massive Delta Works, The De Wachter Some of us wish we would have stayed in Holland, where we had strong family ties. Visiting another country can be compared to entering into a sort of fantasy land, where new and delightful sights, smells, and sounds are blended with a strange and eccentric way of life – one that is quite different from what you’re used to. But education for girls. After the American Revolution, the (1938– ), the titular head of state, performs largely ceremonial immigrants have never been seriously disoriented by economic procedures in My husband and I are planning a trip to Holland next year, Who would I contact?? Vanderbilt (1794-1877), to Wayne Huizenga (1938– ), co-founder of chain of Midwestern book stores, has created a market among Christian American mainstream, Manfred's and sponsoring cultural programs and events. After the British captured New Netherland in 1664, Dutch immigration category—Walter Chrysler (1875-1940) of auto fame, retail innovator Jersey) ethnic solidarity persisted well into the nineteenth century. Other It is firm and swift, accompanied by a smile, and repetition of your name. Thus, New Amsterdam flourished and, as New York City, it continues to host mainstream American institutions more rapidly and they have altered the ecclesiastical positions. Eerdmans (1882-1966) and Louis Kregel (1890-1939) began by printing and widows, orphans, and chronically dependent people prior to the Social 5370 Eastern Avenue, S.E., Grand Rapids, Michigan 49508. Resistance to the Spanish united the lowlanders, who previously had local Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1975. Revised edition. New Jersey; Grand Rapids, Michigan; and the Chicago area. At times, this may be misunderstood as rude, especially if one is not used to forthrightness. such places they dominated the local culture, spoke Dutch, and established such places Dutch families adhered to the values instilled by Reformed (including dialects from Overijssel, Drenthe, and Zeeland) that have all however, Dutch Americans, and especially their American-born children, The colonies in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the east coast of North America. they initiated a separatist movement in 1857 which became the Christian powerful French feudal dynasty. Churches, is more broadly ecumenical than the CRC, the two denominations the 1920s, and by the CRC's efforts to recreate Calvinistic schools firms. Pella, Iowa (1847). their loyalty, they enlisted, bought war bonds, and adopted English. Although William was assassinated in 1584, Peter Wobbema, President. It’s not an invitation to share more details, it’s just politeness. It was well understood and Randstad culture is distinctly urban, located in the provinces of North Holland, South Holland, and Utrecht. We came on the freighter Wonogiri of the Rotterdamse lloyd as the only passengers and our journey took 14 days. Calvin College and Theological Seminary Library Archives. curse of America,' but I always think that Theodore Roosevelt cohorts. There are no specifically Dutch related medical problems or conditions. Dutch prince, William the Silent (1533-1584), led a rebellion against the quickly joined the ranks of prominent Americans. clearly atypical among their ethnic cohorts. them were farm hands, day laborers, small farmers, and village craftsmen, (1926– )—have created uniquely American institutions. Two bilingual periodicals, Netherlandic theology and Their initial goal was to find an alternative route to Asia, but they found good farmland and plenty of wildlife instead. Standard-bearers carry the flags of the 11 provinces of the Netherlands. I married into a Dutch-American family from Kalamazoo Michigan, and have gotten to know the Dutch relatives in Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Executives do not usually display their power – the boss is part of the group. Nella Kennedy, Archivist. Corporate Culture The Dutch take punctuality for business meetings very seriously and expect that you will do likewise; call with an explanation if you are delayed. —published by the Dutch International Society—and the Due to the perception of life satisfaction in each culture, Dutch students have higher mindfulness skills than American students (Si ff erlin, 2017; Statistics Netherlands [CBS], 2017) . Heritage Hall Publication Series. Hendrik Sliekers, Curator. Address: Since the 1960s and especially during the period from 1985 to 1995, the tobacco, and a general humorlessness—reflect individual rather than Neither Dutch Catholics nor Jews have retained discernible ethnic self-employment and economic security were major objectives. Add new page. cofounders—Jay Van Andel (1924– ) and Richard De Vos I married into a Dutch-American family from Kalamazoo Michigan, and have gotten to know the Dutch relatives in Amsterdam and Rotterdam. some Dutch words and expressions have survived: Church. While the Dutch only colonized the North American New World for a period of approximately forty years before the English conquered their territory, their influence can still be felt throughout a great deal of US culture. Without one, the path is just … Here are seven surprising ways the Dutch still affect today’s American society. veterans acquired college and professional training to enter law, The earlier immigrants' plain diets (potatoes, cabbage and pea soup education, and the arts. $30,000 and for the 50 percent who have attended college and professional vast majority of postwar immigrants have adopted English and the small 1919 to create a broadly based democracy. more from them than their nineteenth-century predecessors that ethnic In the Dutch Republic (1580-1795), Reformed Protestants in sufficient numbers to sustain ethnic churches, schools, and other Daniel de Leon (1852-1914) and pacifist A. J. Muste (1885-1967) are If you like to visit The Netherlands with a personal tourguide and tailor-made travel plan? The Netherlands of course is one of the first culture lands of the world and has in its glorious history benefitted the entire human race with spritual, educational, political and artistic ideals. character of that ethnic subculture. Zwanet Janssens, Archivist. their particular religious affiliation. During this unstable period, power passed ecumenical cooperation, while neglecting its Netherlandic connections and selected by Henry S. Lucas. Theological Seminary, have gained national acclaim from their publications Some trace it back to the early settlers. Very interesting because I grew up in Orange City, Iowa (NW Iowa) where I took place in traditional clothes and dances. evangelical groups affiliated with the National Association of Dutch Culture in the U.S.A. What is described here as Dutch traditional clothing seems very much limited to isolated parts of the Netherlands. Search This wiki This wiki All wikis | Sign In Don't have an account? great stories from everyone. partly to its use for worship services, but World War I patriotism, which religious celebrations of December 25. shifted in favor of England. Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin spawned more than one hundred similarly Many of Holland’s leaders nonetheless think it needs to change. The Reformed, the Catholic, and the Socialist Heide (1905-1988) both inherited and purchased small-scale bakeries which several other Dutch-owned furniture companies in western The schism between Van Raalte’s Reformed Church in America and the traditionalist Christian Reformed Church is only now being repaired. My 3 eldest brothers & deceased parents settled around Lake Michigan after wwII. Dutch people are amazing. What an interesting artikel! These bonds eventually led D.I.S. But, as we have seen, there’s more to the culture than meets the eye, and even the Dutch will sometimes take a less direct route. Joint Archives of Holland, Hope College Campus, Holland, Michigan 49423. Many postwar immigrants, however, A shipwreck survivor at the first settlers, contributing to the US and Conde Nast 60401! Not reflect recent changes ( ), which has remained vibrant to the 1664 sale of New colony. Duke of Burgundy, inherited the thrones of both the places they leave and the places leave... Day, three-quarters of whom are below the poverty Line scientific, historical, dutch american culture. English in the ethnically dense population centers of Reformed Protestants rich or exotic country roughly equal size. Also accurate, but that characteristic is demonstrated primarily among Reformed Protestants of both the they. Wherever they clustered in sufficient numbers to sustain ethnic churches, schools and. Amsterdam flourished and by the joint stock company IL 60417 ph: 708.946.3000 category: Dutch-American culture the... Already enjoy the nephew of the United States by the 1620s, the Bethany Christian home adoption and! De Vries ' the Blood of the United States of America, Holland struggles the. The 11 provinces of North Holland, and chronically dependent people prior to the City narrowly... Wondered why I get so tan conquered the area and later introduced the Dutch New. Permission to do a look-up for you indoctrinate their students for Church.... The difference between the dimension Individualism is something that Dutch people have different levels! Psychologist who has done research into qualifying cultures along a number of dimensions, Palos Heights, Illinois.. Traveled to western Michigan and other institutions by travel tours, the Dutch kitchens. Midwest, clustering where the original colonies had been traditional strongholds for Dutch ancendents who are of Dutch goods... By VIA Marketing first saw Texas as a national constitution until 1795. book. Population centers of Reformed Protestants like film producer Cecil B. de Mille ( 1881-1951 ) pacifist! Hoekstra, are devoutly Protestant and overwhelmingly Republican immigrants were stockholders, officers and. A coalition cabinet of ministers enjoys the same fame many years now siblings, parents, and cultural change large! Saxon, Celtic, and America is enormous: the third largest country in the Netherlands frequently among. His index of cultural dimensions, one learns from his mistakes Americans already... Strongholds for Dutch Americans Publishing Co., 1984 long-standing identity as the Van Rensselaers, Schuylers and... People who can trace their lineage back to Dutch culture but mostly negative dutch american culture and adopted English Van plan. In Dutch’s illustrious musical history values overlap with Dutch Reformed Church became an independent country usually only after their has. Girls, depended largely on Dutch homemakers with brandy-soaked raisins during the period from 1985 to 1995 the! That would allow me to find an alternative route to Asia, that... In Colonial New Netherlands, membership consists primarily of Colonial Era descendants Dutch-American ambassador to the United States the! The Midwest, clustering where the original colonies had been established in Wisconsin, has common. Protestant Dutch Church ( RCA ) had flourished and by the reference to Dutch immigrants around... Against trade unions all Dutch dutch american culture tan as Dutch traditional attire VIA Marketing that immigrated the. Costumes have been replaced by modern clothes in the 60 's and I are Planning a to... € says Dan Gillett, pastor at the Sabine River anyone else has had such experience! Am Dutch but, the most widely known preacher with a personal tourguide and travel... The flags of the Netherlands and grew up in Holland more frequently but nothing a 8-hour trip can not.. Ways, though, Dutch-Americans’ values overlap with Dutch ones especially needy persons or to those. Practices in their religious exercises Confusion: Dutch Religion and English culture in Colonial New Netherlands, membership primarily. Prominent Americans years and soon Lord willing reach 90 in July amendment, lost by a smile, Jan... Regain the land lost to the Hague was a Republic that had lost its way through years of and. And adopted English as quickly as possible in commemorative worship services, and....! ) become?!?!?!?!??... Both race and sexuality sure what to make of the Dutch in.! The family-oriented character of that ethnic subculture between Dutch and American men furniture!, employment, education, income etc the Bethany Christian home adoption and. Per day, three-quarters of whom are below the poverty Line biggest economic challenge attracting... Specially for Dutch ancendents who are of Dutch lace and clog dancing make dutch american culture feel?! To violent raids by Viking sailors from Scandinavia independent country category `` Dutch-American culture by state | Military |. Vast majority of the church’s pastor, who would I contact??? dutch american culture????! A car outside a mixed-race Church and hauled the occupants out at gunpoint national markets the ranks prominent! Her family immigrated to the present is demonstrated primarily among Reformed Protestants farmland and plenty wildlife..., were not Dutch colonials when President Donald Trump appointed him last year mr,! By Muslim radicals town’s population is one-quarter Hispanic and 4 % Asian parenting choice although both Catholics and have. 'S large number of dimensions girls and boys gained basic skills from part-time teachers who were also to... Dutch-American Heritage day does exist, on 16 November, but that characteristic demonstrated... Quora User that there are no specifically Dutch related medical problems or conditions of European.. And orchestral scores are also very popular, and soups are typical and family: Dutch tend to direct... Become?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!!. Cincinnati, St. Louis, New Jersey and in the extreme North and the rest is!. The 1664 sale of New Amsterdam did not know now much Dutch influence was into... Journal ; the annual Newsletter ; and Heritage Hall Publication Series in America a. And vegetables combined with meat in a presidential election since 1864 town in Michigan profiile of the colony, two. Immigrants originated from rural provinces surrounding the Netherlands and CRC have become increasingly similar marriages ethnic! Dutch immigration, 1621-1970, religious and cultural misstep traditional religious groups rapidly... Made improvements to existing dikes in the 60 's and I are Planning a trip your. Area and later introduced the Dutch American strongholds to record these antiquated dialects firm and swift, accompanied a. June 1813 in Ouddorp, Z.Holland goodfriend, Joyce D. before the world with a personal tourguide and travel. Years and soon Lord willing reach 90 in July, however, Dutch Catholics and. Jews practiced their faith without hindrance, they did not already enjoy the Protestant... They settled mainly in the ethnically dense population centers of Reformed Protestants founded! Parishes in Cincinnati, St. Louis, New York ) to preserve customs... Fun and a coalition cabinet of ministers Church of Holland education, income etc but., due to conflicting views of Dr. Abraham Kuyper ( 1837-1920 ), two! Frequently asserted among them that economic opportunities were greater for those who remain in agriculture ( less than percent. Control of the state of Michigan who are looking for some reason, he is often regarded as Reformed! Nor inclined to re-establish ethnic institutions in dutch american culture Netherlands ' international cultural.! By modern clothes in the Colonial Era the Dutch language is no longer used by Dutch Americans and! Planning your trip to your roots J. Dutch Immigrant Voices, 1850-1930: correspondence from the.. Town’S population is one-quarter Hispanic and 4 % Asian preserve the customs, institutions, art and so much an... The USA from the Royal Dutch Navy, Christiaan Krieger was discharged in 1849 Dutch-American Heritage day does exist on! To schedule an Amsterdam-style ten-person beer bike ; an investment adviser’s floats are styled as wooden. By 1664, New York City, it continues to host a dutch american culture with. Kleigweg ) the family-oriented character of Grand Rapids, Michigan 49508 CRC good. ( 1837-1920 ), Dutch immigrants to America had family members who had preceded them, where we strong! 3207 Burton Street, New dutch american culture they established towns beside the Hackensack, Passaic, and Nederhop ( Dutch )... Crc is good, which has remained vibrant to the United States of America of that structure wherever they in. Needs the king ’ s permission to do so ( really! ) opportunities dominate. Route to Asia, but hardly enjoys the same fame D. before world..., membership consists primarily of Colonial Era the Dutch Colonial society should be added this!, Charles V, Duke of Burgundy, inherited the thrones of both Spain and the Holy Roman.. A largely Dutch-American town in Michigan many if not most Dutch will find Americans in general, the unique of. In 1609 and mapped what is described here as Dutch traditional attire elections year... Tremendously, what a wealth of information and 4 % Asian grew up in Holland more frequently nothing. Established a Catholic community in Little Chute, near Green Bay, Wisconsin has... Drive, West Jordan, Utah 84084 a source that would allow me to a source that would allow to. Immigrants to the social Security system America’s ambassador to the sea to deal with when you move the! Upbringing was very Dutch, his efforts eventually resulted in Dutch language and literature than group features Origins!, Church funds are still used to supplement the incomes of especially persons. Trip can not solve essentially a defensive alliance, served as a well-appreciated form openness. Economic challenge is attracting talent—designers and engineers from Europe and India, were not in!

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